Hal Draper
with Anne Lipow


Women and Class

Towards A Socialist Feminism


Author: Hal Draper in collaboration with Anne Lipow.
Editor: E. Haberkern.
Copyright © 2011 Center for Socialist History, Alameda CA 94501.
The book is available in PDF format here.
Transcription & mark-up: Einde O’Callaghan for the Marxists’ Internet Archive.

Part 1. Class Roots Of The Feminist Movement

Chapter 1. Women in the French Revolution
1. Why No Feminist Movement Before 1789?
2. The Condorcet Connection
3. The Movement of the Nameless
4. Olympe De Gouges
5. Etta Palm
6. The Keralio Type

Chapter 2. The Society of Revolutionary Women of 1793
1. “Wild Men” and Revolutionary Women
2. Two Women
3. The Revolutionary Women and Feminism
4. The First Month of the RW
5. Choosing up Sides
6. The Fight for the Sansculotterie
7. The September Assault: At the Jacobins
8. The October Frame-up – And the End

Chapter 3. The Myth of Mary Wollestonecraft
1. Ferocious Condemnations
2. The Monsters
3. The People of the Limbo
4. The Invisible Women
5. Vindication – Of Whom?

Chapter 4. Sex and Sects: The Trouble With the Utopians
1. Fourier: The Pioneer
2. Fourier: The Short-Sighted Visionary
3. The Saint-Simonians: Into the Bog
4. The Two Faces of Cabet

Chapter 5. James Morrison and Working-Class Feminism
1. A Trade-Unionist in the 1830s
2. The Feminism of the Class Struggle
3. Morrison’s Pioneer
4. A Synthetic Essay by James Morrison
5. Afterword: The Male-Female Unit

Chapter 6. 1848: A Tale of Two Sisters
1. The Forty-Eighters in France
2. George Sand in Politics
3. Lady with Knife
4. Jeanne Deroin
5. The First Feminist Electoral Campaign
6. Jeanne Deroin and the Workers’ Union
7. Sisterhood

Chapter 7. Phobic Anti-feminism: The Case of the Father of Anarchism
1. The Patriarchal Master
2. The Female Enemy
3. The Anti-Sex Appeal
4. The Dirty Mind
5. Homosexuality and Fear
6. The Anarchist Rationale
7. The “Libertarian” Negation

Part 2. The Debate in the Social Democracy

1. The Socialist Women’s Movement in Germany
2. Lassalle
3. Bebel and Zetkin
4. The Gotha Congress

Chapter 1. August Bebel: The Enemy Sisters

Chapter 2. Clara Zetkin: Proletarian Women and Socialist Revolution

Chapter 3. Clara Zetkin on a Bourgeois Feminist Petition

Chapter 4. Rosa Luxemburg: Women’s Suffrage and Class Struggle

Chapter 5. Working Women vs. Bourgeois Feminism
1. Reduction of the Working-Day for Women
2. Eleanor Marx: How Should We Organize?
3. The Workingwomen’s Movement in England
4. A Women’s Trade Union
5. Women’s Trade Unions in England

* * *

Editor’s Note

This anthology is based on a draft prepared by Hal Draper in collaboration with Anne Lipow.

No attempt has been made to alter or “correct” the original, a copy of which is available at the Special Collections division of the General Library of the University of California at Davis.

Any differences are a result of errors introduced in transcribing the original typewritten manuscript to digital format despite my best efforts at finding such discrepancies.

A Note on the Cover

The portrait of “lady liberty” on the cover is a reproduction of a United States coin from 1877. The symbol is of a woman wearing the Phrygian cap, a symbol of liberty for both French and American revolutionaries. It played a minor role in the controversy surrounding the Society of Women Revolutionaries of 1793 as described in Chapter 2 of Part 1 of this anthology.

Originally, the statue of liberty was to be wearing such a cap. But, by 1886, when the statue was dedicated, the American capitalist class had decided that liberty was one of those good things which you could have too much of.

I have slightly altered the reproduction. Lady Liberty on the coin is looking backward. Presumably indicating that the revolution is in the past. I have reversed the image.

Reference Notes

Note: In many cases, the source of a reference is already indicated in the text, as in the case of citations from the Congressional Record, where the date of the session is given. – Where the abbreviation op. cit. is used, it is followed by a parenthetical reference to the note involved, by chapter and note number; except where the reference is to the note immediately preceding. For example, references to Lemons’ book (Chapter 1, note 1) look so: op. cit. (1: n.1). – References to a multivolume work are in colon form; that is, Vol. 4, page 30 = 4: 30.

Last updated on 12 September 2020