Vladimir Ilyich Lenin


Chapter I. The Theoretical Mistakes of the Narodnik Economists

Written: 1896-1899.
Source: Lenin’s Collected Works, 4th Edition, Moscow, 1964, Volume 3, pp. 37-69
Publisher: Progress Publishers
First Published: First printed in book form at the end of March 1899. Published according to the text of the second edition, 1908.
Original Transcription & Markup: R. Cymbala (2000)
Re-Marked up by: Kevin Goins (2008)
Public Domain: Lenin Internet Archive (2000). You may freely copy, distribute, display and perform this work; as well as make derivative and commercial works. Please credit “Marxists Internet Archive” as your source.


I. The Social Division of Labour  37
II. The Growth of the Industrial Population at the Expense of the Agricultural  40
III. The Ruin of the Small Producers  41
IV. The Narodnik Theory of the Impossibility of Realising Surplus-Value  43
V. The Views of Adam Smith on the Production and Circulation of the Aggregate Social Product in Capitalist Society and Marx’s Criticism of These Views  47
VI. Marx’s Theory of Realisation  51
VII. The Theory of the National Income  58
VIII. Why Does the Capitalist Nation Need a Foreign Market?  64
IX. Conclusions From Chapter I  67



In the first edition of The Development of Capitalism in Russia (1899) this chapter was entitled “References to Theory.”

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