V. I.   Lenin





Dipl. Ing. Rudolf Seubert, The Taylor System in Practice, Berlin, 1914.

The author spent eight months studying the Tabor Manufacturing Co. (Philadelphia) and promises a detailed practical description.

[HUGE LEFT MARGIN:] p. 6: “Those well acquainted with German and American conditions will at once concede that, || as regards economic use of material, German industry is far in advance of American, but,   on the other hand, as regards economic use of || characteristic! human labour-power, Germany has still much to learn from the U.S.A.” (7)....

“Time studies” are better called “productivity studies”: not only is the time observed, but the best work methods are studied and deduced (9–10)....

|||| N.B. —“The science of work” (10)

Movement is studied by the cinematograph—a slanting position facilitates handling of the material (without looking) etc., etc. ||| N.B. “No unnecessary or purposeless movements” (15).

The method must be put into effect cautiously, ||| sic!!!! N.B. in keeping with American democratic customs (p. 22) so that it shall not be regarded as “torture” (22).

The wage increase is usually one-third, whereby the worker receives

||||| N.B. bour- geoisi- fying!!! an amount that, “as regards his position, already puts him (if + one-third) at the economic level of a fairly well-paid tradesman or technician” (22)....

p. 30: “On the average” the Taylor reform takes “five years”. The Tabor Manufacturing Co. was “in danger of bankruptcy” !! because of the expense of introducing the Taylor system.

The Tabor Manufacturing Co. was founded in the 1890s. In 1904 there was a strike (half-won). Things were going badly. Taylor offered to provide money if he were allowed to reorganise (32). Accepted.
After five years: production increased 80%;
costs decreased 30%;
wages increased 25%;

in 1912
{{ 45 workers (33)
48 (!!sic!!!) officials and foremen ((usually 1 : 3)) (clerks) (office workers and foremen).

Next come copies of the “keys” (abbreviations), formulas, papers, instructions—a mass of written material, highly complex ... office workers call it the “talmud” (p. 35)....

One employee is engaged solely in studying productivity (time studies), which enables him to study deeply all hand movements and operations, and to improve them.

...“In this way, hardly a day passes in the Tabor Manufacturing Co. without some aspect of the work N.B. || being tested through productivity studies for its expediency and found capable of improvement” (107).

[[BOX: N.B. | ]] p. 153: “Time and motion studies” = the most “interesting” and the most “sensational” feature of the Taylor system. [[RIGHT BOX END:]]

[Hours—hours and hundredths of an hour (p. 124). More convenient.]

Difficulties in applying the system in Germany: “In Germany, the social stratification of the working classes is a difficulty that should not be under-estimated. !! N.B. ||| In Germany, an academically educated man prefers to address one not so educated in a tone of command, and the same thing applies between the engineer and the foreman, and between the foreman and the worker. Under the Taylor system, where they must feel themselves co-workers, such a tone will no longer be permissible” (152).... It will take years to become accustomed to “workers being promoted to the posts of foremen and officials”....




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